Connect with us

Alternative Health

Phytochemical Content and Pharma-Nutrition Study on Eleutherococcus senticosus Fruits Intractum

Published

on

Daniel Załuski, 1 , * Marta Olech, 2 Agnieszka Galanty, 3 Robert Verpoorte, 4 Rafał Kuźniewski, 1 Renata Nowak, 2 and Anna Bogucka-Kocka 5

Abstract

In the past two decades public interest in herbal products has increased significantly in Europe, especially in the plant-based products from non-European traditions. Eleutherococcus senticosus has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, anemia, and rheumatoid arthritis. The Eleutherococcus senticosus fruits intractum was examined for the content of phenolic acids (LC-ESI-MS/MS), minerals (AAS), TPC, and TFC (spectrophotometric assay). The antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging assay and TLC-DB-DPPH dot-blot test. An anti-Hyal activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometric assay method. Cytotoxicity towards HL-60, HL-60/MX1, HL-60/MX2, CEM/C1, and CCRF/CEM leukemic cell lines was done using trypan blue test. Among eight phenolic acids, trans-caffeic acid was found in the largest amount (41.2 mg/g DE). The intractum presented a high amount of macroelements (Ca, Mg, K; 1750, 1300, and 21000 mg/kg) and microelements (Fe, Mn; 32.7, 54.3 mg/kg), respectively. The content of TPC and TFC was 130 and 92 mg/g DE, respectively. The intractum showed anti-Hyal activity (2.16–60%) and an antioxidant capacity (EC50; 52 μg/mL). The intractum most strongly inhibited the growth of HL-60, HL-60/MX1, and CCRF/CEM. A better understanding of the intractum health benefits is important in order to increase its utility and enrich dietary sources of health promoting compounds.

1. Introduction

Plant-based products have been used to manage various ailments for the centuries in different ethnic communities of the world. Nowadays, such products are used in developed and developing countries separately and/or together with synthetic drugs. It is established that about 120 plant derived compounds are used in western medicine, and about 80% of the world population uses medicinal plants in primary health care [1].

Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms, called Siberian ginseng, is a medicinal plant with a long history of use (by the Chinese for over 2000 years). The plant has been recognized as an adaptogen, similarly to Panax ginseng [C. A. Meyer. (Araliaceae)], Schisandra chinensis [Turcz. Baill (Schisandraceae)], or Aralia mandshurica [Rupr. et Maxim. (Araliaceae)].

In the Chinese and Russian ethnomedicine, its use was empirical, because people used to believe that it was a panacea that promoted longevity, with beneficial effects for the treatment of physical fatigues. The fruits have been used for a long time as an ingredient of the fermented wine, the leaves as a tonic, as a functional beverage marketed for reducing liver damage, and accelerating alcohol detoxification [25].

At present, in China the ethanol extract of the roots is a popular health supplement for weakness, diseases connected with inflammation (rheumatism, haemorrhoids), and impotence. It was reported that, in the Olympic Games, the players of the Old Soviet Union have increased records after administering the E. senticosus roots products [67]. According to Załuski’s previous studies, the fruits of that species cultivated in Poland, act as antioxidants, inductors of the apoptosis in Jurkat 45 and HL60 leukemic cell lines, and inhibitors of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 [89].

The Eleutherococcus senticosus products attract global attention as a novel medicinal plant and since a few years have become popular as dietary supplement in the United States and European countries. Imported products of this plant have become available in North America, with a market share of 3.1% of the $12 billion medicinal herbal industry. The 1994 DSHEA (Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act) regulation allows a direct commercialization of E. senticosus as a supplement for consumption in the United States without the regulation of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). With the increased awareness of developing countries that the study of traditional medicines and finding new leads is important, there is a need to avoid imported expensive eastern medicines and to estimate a new source of some eastern herbs in Europe. Preparations of the roots of E. senticosus are given in cases of asthenia with weakness and fatigue, for example, in convalescence. This indication has been officially accepted by the Community Herbal Monograph on Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr et Maxim) Maxim Radix (EMEA/HMPC/244569/2006), published by the European Medicines Agency. The clinical application of E. senticosus is generally considered safe; however, the European Community Herbal Monograph states “arterial hypertension” as a contraindication [57].

The roots of E. senticosus are source of phenols, called eleutherosides (derivatives of lignans, coumarins, and phenylpropanoids), flavonoids (hyperin, rutin, afzelin, quercetin, and kaempferol), phenolic acids, triterpenic acids, and anthocyanins (Figure 1). Compounds isolated from the fruits belong to eleutherosides (eleutherosides B and E), flavonoids, phenolic acids, and essential oil (0.3%, v/d.w.). The dried fruits, consumed as food, are rich in Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Cu. In the leaves, flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, and rutin) have been identified [811].

Reference:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098108/

Alternative Health

YOUR OWN PERFECT MEDICINE by Martha M. Christy

Published

on

Continue Reading

Alternative Health

The DMSO Handbook for Doctors

Published

on

The DMSO Handbook for Doctors

Continue Reading

Alternative Health

Water Crystallography – Sailboat

Published

on

By: Veda Austin @vedaaustin_water

Continue Reading
Advertisement

Trending